International Union of Medical and Applied Bioelectrography

The investigation of influence of viscosity and surface tension

The investigation of influence of viscosity and surface tension upon the characteristics of gas discharge around drops of liquid

Korotkin A.I.*, Krizhanovsky E.V.**, Borisova M.B.***, Korotkina S.A.**

* Central Research Institute of Academician Krilov
** Association “KTI”
*** St. Petersburg State University, department of chemistry


The technique of investigation of liquids by way of studying the characteristics of gas discharge around drops was developed in [1, 2].
It was demonstrated that the solutions of strong electrolytes had differences in specially developed characteristics of gas discharge images (GDV-grams), both between neighboring concentrations of the same solution and between the same concentrations of different solutions.
At the same time, it was found that exposing the drops of non-conducting liquids to electromagnetic field (EMF) during the period of up to 10 seconds, a regular dynam-ics of changes of characteristics of gas discharge glow was observed. This dynamics was concerned with the presence of periodically repeating states manifested in the inte-raction of liquid with EMF in time.
The research of characteristics of dynamic series of GDV-grams of various liquids demonstrated their significance for the detection of individual differences of chemically close liquids.
Works [1, 2] also demonstrated that the equivalent electroconductivity of solu-tions of strong electrolytes was connected by a third-order polynomial with one of pa-rameters characterizing gas discharge image (GDV-gram) of a drop of liquid – form coefficient.
At the same time, the question of connection of the GDV-gram parameters and physico-chemical characteristics of investigated liquids remains open.
The research conducted in this work was aimed at the possibility of detecting such connections. With this purpose, we investigated consecutive dilutions of glycerin in dis-tilled water in order to disclose the possibility of influence of solution’s viscosity upon the parameters of dynamic GDV-grams, as well as the dilutions of polyox in order to reveal the influence of surface tension upon the parameters of dynamic GDV-grams around the drops of the latter.

Methods of research
The liquids (solutions of glycerin and polyox) were exposed to electromagnetic field for the period of 10 seconds. This interaction was visualized and recorded in the form of video film with sampling frequency of 30 frames a second. The obtained images were transformed into GDV-grams.  
The processes studied in the present work represented time series of GDV-gram parameters, such as background area, form coefficient, intensity, isoline length, etc. [2]. Time series were estimated by their approximation coefficients of trends, entropy, frac-tality, as well as by statistical characteristics.
The glycerin was diluted by distilled water two times consecutively, up to 1/1024 dilution. The polyox was diluted up to concentration 1/16 by 0.01 KCl dilution. 10 mea-surements were received for every object.  

Results of analysis
The following dependence of background area parameter on the concentration was received for polyox.  
Maximal concentration of polyox, under which the gas discharge could be formed, was equal to 1%. Average value of time series of background area of the corresponding concentration lied in the range of 3*103 pixels. Then, at every consecutive dilution, this value decreased by 500 pixels on average (fig.1).
The decrease was registered in the line of dissolvent 0.01 KCl, which indicated li-near dependence of surface tension and background area. Other parameters of GDV-grams did not reveal significant differences for the dilutions from the second to the forth one.  
Fig.1. Time dependence of background area on polyox solution concentration.

Second-order polinomial dependence of the maximal entropy of background area time series on the concentrations of solution was found for glycerin (fig.2). Second-order polynomial dependence, but with opposite sign was also registered for the depen-dence of K1 approximation parameter on concentration. The given parameter characte-rized the speed of decrease of time series of background area.
The minimum of cuspidal function of the dependence of maximal entropy (and the maximum for K1 parameter) on the concentration lied in the range of sixth dilution (1/64 concentration).
The nonlinearity in the dependencies of maximal entropy and approximation pa-rameter K1 on concentration was apparently connected with the change of ratio of ioni-zation frequency, frequency of diffusive losses and fractal dimension of clusters of the investigated liquids in accordance with equation (1):
 ,        (1)
where q – wave vector; i – ionization frequency,   - frequency of diffusive losses , D – coefficient of diffusion of particles, w – frequency of electro-magnetic wave.  
Fig.2. Dependence of maximal entropy of time series of background area on the concentrations of solutions.

Thus, the research demonstrated that the physico-chemical parameters of liquids have both linear and non-linear dependencies on GDV parameters, which requires fur-ther research for the construction of precise quantitative mathematical models, develop-ing the qualitative model (1). Such a model will allow diagnosing and classifying the state of liquid on the basis of data of time series of GDV-gram parameters and predict-ing the changes of structure of GDV-grams in time.

1. K. Korotkov and D. Korotkin, Concentration dependence of gas discharge around drops of inorganic electrolytes, J.Appl.Phys., 89, 4732, (2001)
2. K. Korotkov, E. Krizhanovsky, M. Borisova, D. Korotkin Time dynamics of the gas discharge around drops of liquids, J.Appl.Phys., 95, 3334-3338, (2004).



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